Bench Press Flat
- Grasp two dumbbells with a closed, neutral grip.
- Sit up straight at the end of a flat bench and rest the dumbbells vertically on your upper thighs.
- Lie backward allowing your hip flexors to assist with leveraging the dumbbells as your torso leans back toward the bench.
- Position dumbbells close to your body with elbows bent.
- Ensure you have a five-point body contact with the bench. This includes the back of the head, the shoulder blades/upper back, glute region/lower back, and both feet.
- (If a spotter is present, signal the spotter for assistance by providing support at the elbows.)
- Extend elbows (without locking elbows), lifting the dumbbells and positioning them above your shoulders.
Downward movement/eccentric phase:
- In a controlled fashion, allow the elbows to bend while lowering the dumbbells as you flare your elbows out to the side.
- Lower the dumbbells until your elbows form a 90-degree angle.
- Maintain the wrists rigid and directly above the elbows throughout the entire movement.
- Maintain the five-point body contact throughout the entire movement.
Upward movement/concentric phase:
- Extend elbows, pushing the bar upward, returning the bar to starting position (do not lock elbows).
- When your set is complete, sit up and return the dumbbells to a vertical position on your upper thighs and stand up. If the dumbbells are heavier, flex your hips toward your torso before sitting up, touch the dumbbells ends to your upper thighs, and allow the weight of the dumbbells to gradually leverage your body as they push downward on your upper thighs. Use the momentum of the weight to position you upward to a standing position.
- If a spotter is present, they should assist with the initial lift of the dumbbells, if necessary, by placing their hands lightly on your elbows. Once the lifter has control of the dumbbells, the spotter should maintain their hands near the elbows as the dumbbells descend and ascend. The spotter must position himself or herself in a stable stance throughout the lifter’s set.
FAQ'S & FACTS ABOUT Bench Press Flat
What Is A Dumbbell Flat Bench Press?
A dumbbell bench press is a resistance exercise, which involves the primary horizontal shoulder adductor, the pectoralis major. This exercise is performed with two dumbbells.
The concentric portion of the lift is horizontal shoulder adduction and elbow extension, which involves the lifting of the weight. The eccentric portion is horizontal shoulder abduction and elbow flexion, which involves the descent of the weight.
The purpose of the dumbbell bench press is to strengthen the pectoralis major while promoting hypertrophy (increases in size) of this muscle.
Why Do A Dumbbell Flat Bench Press?
Dumbbell bench presses increase the size and strength of the upper (clavicular) and lower (sternocostal) heads of the pectoralis major. The dumbbell bench press is a staple exercise to develop the chest.
Performing bench press with dumbbells allows the lifter to extend both elbows independently, resulting in higher muscle fiber activation of the right and left pectoralis major. In addition, dumbbell presses may identify weaknesses of either side, if present. Bench press with dumbbells will also provide an alternative to the barbell that is easier on the shoulders and wrists. Dumbbell bench press complements barbell bench press performance.
The triceps and anterior deltoid are also activated in this movement.
The dumbbell bench press serves not only as an exercise to improve aesthetics of the pectoral muscle, but also as a valuable training tool for sports that entail pushing and throwing.
Anatomy Of A Dumbbell Flat Bench Press
The pectoralis major is a large, fan-shaped muscle that spans across the chest, forming the front portion of the axillary fold (arm pit). It is divided into two parts: clavicular and sternal. Its origin is located at the sternal end of the clavicle, the sternum, rib cartilage (ribs 1-6 [or 7]), and the aponeurosis of the external oblique. The fibers of the pectoralis major converge at the point of insertion located at the greater tubercle of the humerus. The pectoralis major aids in pushing movements as the shoulder adducts the arm against resistance. The shoulder adducts as the dumbbells are pressed upward.
The horizontal positioning of this exercise targets both the sternocostal and clavicular heads of the pectoralis major. Therefore, dumbbell bench presses are a staple exercise for developing the entire chest.
The triceps brachii is located on the back of the upper arm, originating at the shoulder and inserting in the elbow joint. It consists of three heads, the long, medial and lateral head. The medial head lies beneath the long and lateral head. The long head origin is located at the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (shoulder blade). The original of the lateral head is located at the posterior shaft of the humerus. The medial head origin is located at the radial groove of the posterior humeral shaft.
The long and lateral heads make up the “horseshoe” portion of the triceps. All three heads merge, sharing insertion into the olecranon process of the ulna, located at the elbow joint.
The triceps brachii extend the elbow joint. The long head assists in arm adduction as with the bench press pushing motion.
The deltoid is a thick, multipennate muscle that forms a curtain around the shoulder. It is the primary muscle involved with arm abduction and the anterior fibers are a primary shoulder flexor. The anterior deltoid is a primary synergist of the pectoralis. When developed, the deltoids give the shoulder their round shape. The origin of the deltoid is located at the insertion of the trapezius, lateral third of the clavicle and the acromion spine of the scapula. Its insertion is located at the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus.
The anconeus is a short, triangular muscle located at the elbow joint. Its origin is located at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, inserting at the lateral aspect of the olecranon process of the ulna.
Like the anterior fibers of the deltoid, the coracobrachialis is a synergist pectoralis major with horizontal shoulder adduction. It is a small muscle originating at the coracoid process of the scapula and inserting half way down the shaft of the humerus.
The wrist flexors and extensors stabilize the wrists, the abdominals stabilize the torso and the rotator cuff muscles stabilize the shoulder girdle.
Variations Of A Dumbbell Flat Bench Press
Decline dumbbell bench press, incline dumbbell bench press, close grip dumbbell bench press, wide grip dumbbell bench press, reverse grip dumbbell bench press.
How To Improve Your Dumbbell Flat Bench Press
To minimize negative stress on your shoulder joint, do not allow the elbows to drop below the level of the torso. The elbows will form a 90-degree angle as the dumbbells are lowered and reach the level of the torso.
Utilizing a spotter can ensure the safety of dumbbell bench press execution. They can also monitor your technique.
Focus on the concentric portion of the contraction, concentrating on “squeezing” as arms are fully extending as you push the dumbbells upward.
Emphasis on eccentric contractions, prolonging the eccentric portion of the contraction, may also be incorporated in a training program focused on increasing strength. This should be implemented accordingly and with adequate muscle recovery as eccentric contractions cause substantial damage to muscle tissue.
In order to improve pushing performance through “sticking points”, partial repetition ranges may be implemented to improve full range of motion of the bench press. Strategically varying your grip width (narrow, standard and wide grip) and hand positioning (supinated grip, pronated grip) can improve overall bench press performance.
Varying your bench press angles (e.g. decline bench, incline bench press) can optimize fiber activation of all portions of the pectoralis major.
It is important to note that your repetition and set volume will depend on your goals (e.g. strength, hypertrophy, muscular endurance). It is also important to allow adequate recovery days in between chest and triceps training to allow muscles to repair.
Common Mistakes When Doing A Dumbbell Flat Bench Press
Lowering the dumbbells too low should be avoided as it results in excessive shoulder extension and horizontal abduction, which can place great stress on the shoulder joint. Ensure that the upper arms do not pass the level of the torso when lowering the dumbbells. 1
Bouncing the dumbbells together at the top of the upward phase is unnecessary. Although the dumbbells will move closer one another as the elbows fully extend, it is not necessary for them to touch.
When initiating the lift to assume the starting position, swinging the dumbbells upward may compromise the biceps tendon if the dumbbells are heavier. When the set is complete, extending the shoulders to lower the dumbbells to the floor can compromise the shoulder joint. Dropping the dumbbells is also inadvisable as it is frowned upon and can damage the dumbbells and the facility. Using the leverage from your hip flexors/upper thighs to get in starting position and to stand up from the lift to re-rack weights is conducive to the safety (and reputation) of the lifter.
It is very common to observe an individual arching their back in efforts of lifting the weight with more ease. This technique should only be performed by weightlifting professionals and can compromise the safety of lifters.
Lifting heavier weight without a trained spotter. With moderate to heavy weight loads, a trained spotter should monitor the lifter throughout their set for optimal safety.
1. Reinold MM, Gill TJ, Wilk KE et al. (2010). Current concepts in the evaluation and treatment of the shoulder in overhead throwing athletes, Part 2. Sports Health. 2(2):101-115.
Injuries Or Ailments & Their Effects Regarding A Dumbbell Flat Bench Press
If proper technique is not adhered to (e.g. arching of the back, lowering the upper arms past the level of the torso, dropping the weight quickly instead of controlling the descent on the eccentric portion of the lift), the likelihood of injury increases.
If proper technique and recovery are not adhered to, impingement syndrome, rotator cuff injuries, biceps tendonitis/biceps tendinosis, pectoralis major tears and/or glenoid labrum tears may result. It is best to avoid bench press exercises when addressing impingement syndrome/rotator cuff injury unless advised by a physical therapist.